History of the Abacus

The abacus has a very long history. It spans over thousands of years. The earliest abacus was invented about 5000 years ago. Some expert historians believe that the abacus was invented by the ancient Chinese. Still others are of the opinion that the abacus was invented by the Babylonians or by the Egyptians. However, all these claims are backed by historical evidence like archaeological excavations and ancient texts. It may be possible that many civilizations may have invented the abacus independently and roughly at the same time.

The first counting device was the human hand and the fingers. The reason why we use the decimal system is that there are 10 fingers (both hands combined) and so it is very easy to count if 10 is the base. Later on man started using natural objects and markings to count and calculate. Larger quantities [exceeding 10] could not be easily count on the fingers. So various natural objects like pebbles and twigs were used.

Merchants needed not only needed a way to count the goods that they bought and sold, they also needed a method to perform calculations. This was achieved with the help of counting boards. Until the advent of a proper number system, counting boards were very popular. The abacus has its origin in one such counting board.

Time line of the history of the abacus:

  • 3000 BC: An early form of abacus originates in the Orient
  • 1000 BC: Chinese start using counting boards
  • 500 BC: Romans and Greeks use counting boards
  • 300 BC: Abacus is widely used as a counting device in China
  • 500 AD: The abacus is used in Europe

Going Shooting? Do not Leave the House Without These 5 Gadgets

I personally do not like to drag a lot of equipment with me when I'm out shooting, but there are a few things I simply can not do without. I have listed my top 5 pieces of equipment that every photographer (amateur or not) should consider adding to their camera bag.

Epson's Multimedia Photo Viewers
These small, portable backup / storage / display devices can truly save the day if you are out shooting and find yourself with filled up memory cards and lots left to see. You can transfer photos (as well as video and music) straight from your camera or through the built in card slots. The viewers come in three different configurations: the P-3000 has a 40GB hard drive, the P-6000 80GB, and the P-7000 160GB. All measure 3.5×5.9×1.3 "and weigh 1lb, and some of the features include 4" screens, long life rechargeable batteries, and A / V output. $ 299- $ 699.

Gorilla pod
These flexible, funky looking tripods are amazing little gadgets. Sturdy and durable, their legs twist and bend so that they are able to attach to almost anything (your bike, a car, a pole, a branch, etc.). They come in 5 sizes to suit everything from cell phones to heavy video cameras, and are really lightweight: 1.6oz (the "Go-Go") to 1.1 lbs (the "Focus"). The SLR model weighs in at 5.8oz and costs $ 44.95, and the original model (for point and shoots) weighs 1.6 oz and sells for $ 24.95.

Homemade Flash diffuser
On-camera flashes typically produce some pretty horrible results, and not everyone wants to spend money on an external flash (and take the time to perfect using it). I have found two home remedies that work really well:

For popup flashes, use an old film canister (not the black ones obviously, the hazy white ones). Take the lid off, cut a strip out of it from top to bottom, just wide enough so that it fits snugly over your flash, and just slide it in place so that the flash is being fired through the canister. You'll have to play around with the camera settings a little bit to get the exposure to where you want it. If you do not have any old canisters lying about, ask at a photo printing shop if you can have one.

For point and shoot flashes, I use a small piece of tape, regular Scotch Magic Tape (not the totally clear kind). Put one piece over the flash, test and see what you think. If it's still too strong, just put another piece over it. Weight: negligible. Cost: Around $ 2 for the tape.

Collapsible Reflector
It may seem like an unnecessary expense, but these small, lightweight disks are invaluable for adding light to the shaded part of a person or object, both indoors and out. I use the 22 "Photoflex disk in Silver / White for just about everything, but they come in several different colors. your subject holding the reflector (outside of the picture of course) so that it bounces the light from the window into the shook side of their face, and look at the difference. a white piece of cardboard .It works just as well, but it's not as easy to pack in a bag.

Rain Protection
The Shutter Hat is like a raincoat for your camera (SLR) so you do not have to pass up shooting outside just because it's raining or snowing. It's held in place by Velcro and a rubber piece that fits into the flash hot shoe, and covers lenses up to 8 "long. It also has two slits for the strap, so you can still carry it around your neck with the Hat on. It folds up really small, so you can carry it with you and have it on hand all the time in case of a sudden downpour.

For point and shoot cameras, your best bet is to invest in a waterproof case such as Aquapac or DiCAPac. Not only will they protect your camera in the rain, you can also take it snorkeling or diving. 2.7oz, $ 29.95- $ 49.95. For a land-only low cost alternative, use a shower cap or a ziplock bag with a hole cut out for the lens.

Credit Card Debt Repair – Solving Your Credit Card Debt Problems

Many people get into trouble with credit cards. Having a couple of credit cards that you manage properly will help build your credit, but many people do not have the discipline to manage credit cards properly and end up with significant debt and a poor credit score. It is important to resist the temptation to open credit cards just because an offer comes in the mail. Many credit cards have interest rates and fees that increase significantly if one payment is missed or is late. Credit card terms and conditions are often difficult to understand so consumers don’t realize what they are getting into before incurring the debt.

Debt consolidation and debt settlement is a solution to unmanageable credit card debt for many people.

Debt consolidation/debt settlement is a good idea if you have several high interest credit cards that you have trouble paying on time or you are only able to make the minimum payment. Having one smaller monthly payment will help you manage your debts and pay them off faster. As part of the debt consolidation program the company you use may be able to get the credit card companies to reduce the interest remove late fees and even reduce the principle.

Remember, if you only pay the minimum amount each month it can take many years to pay them off and most of the payments you make will go to interest.

Paying more than the minimum required each month will help you pay off your credit cards faster and to boost your credit score. This also shows lenders that you are able to manage your finances properly by making your payments timely.

Do not be afraid to use debt consolidation/debt settlement programs if you are in debt over your head. These programs can help you get back on track in a relatively short time. Most credit card companies are ready to offer a deal to these companies on your behalf to help you solve your money owing problems.

All in all, there are debt management programs available for those dealing with high indebtedness, just make sure you are dealing with a trusted company. A check at the Better Business Bureau website could do the job perfectly.

Nokia 6280: Take Full Advantage of 3G Multimedia Opportunities

The Nokia 6280 is a joy to use and with a vivid, bright and clear display. The key features include a MP3 player, PTT (Push To Talk), dual integrated cameras with video calling and email with attachment support. The 6280 includes a 64MB miniSD card in the package and this should be enough storage. The phone provides an ideal platform for 3G services such as real time video sharing and two way video calling. The phone creates a natural, user friendly conventional camera experience by operating the photography function in a horizontal landscape mode.

Pictures and videos taken with Nokia 6280 can be viewed directly on the screen and then shared with others via MMS or email. The 2 megapixel camera of Nokia 6280 snaps stills of good quality in daylight and adequate quality in darker environments. More features are Bluetooth dial-up networking, MP3 ringtones, 6 MB of onboard memory, miniSD memory card expansion, 64 MB card bundled, headset and printing support, USB 2.0 connectivity with PictBridge support, Tri-band GSM with EDGE support, Stereo FM radio. When it comes to adding extra software, Java is supported and if you want to synchronize with a PC, you get both the software and a cable that allows you to get good sound output both from the radio and the music player.

The Nokia 6280 mobile phone has a classic feel to it. The solid built frame only weighs 115g, lighter than other 3G phones from Nokia. The phone runs on WCDMA and tri band GSM, supporting video calls at a high speed of 384kbps. The push to talk (PTT) technology allows you to instantly talk to other people following a PTT phone on the same network just by the push of a button.

Nokia 6280